quinta-feira, 26 de janeiro de 2017

Gestão de Projetos: O que é?

A gestão de projetos é uma atividade em franco crescimento, a tendência não é de agora, iniciou-se nos anos 90 do século passado, e acelerou com o novo milénio. O Project Management Institute (PMI) estima que entre 2010 e 2020, haverá 6,2 milhões de postos de trabalho de gestão de projetos, só nos Estados Unidos da América.
 
Os gestores de projeto têm a responsabilidade de manter os projetos no caminho certo para que seja bem sucedida a criação de um determinado produto ou serviço. Eles garantem que os projetos terminar a tempo e dentro do orçamento, ao mesmo tempo, satisfazem as necessidades do cliente. A conjugação destes 3 fatores é aquilo a que, em gestão de projetos, se chama de Triângulo Dourado.

Continue a ler para saber mais sobre as várias metodologias que pode usar na gestão de projetos e sobre as fases do ciclo de vida de gestão de projetos.


A gestão de projetos é o processo de planear e organizar tarefas para realizar um projeto bem sucedido. Os projetos são esforços temporários concebidos para produzir um resultado especifico. Podendo ter durações muito variáveis (poucas semanas ou vários anos) todos os projetos tem um inicio e um fim bem definido e isso representa uma das principais diferenças entra projetos e operações em curso que, como o próprio nome indica, são atividades continuas e sem data de término.

Nas metodologias tradicionais, nomeadamente na metodologia PMBOK do PMI, o processo de gestão de projetos tem um conjunto de 4 a 5 fases consecutivas. A primeira dessas fases é a  fase de iniciação do projeto, durante a qual o gestor de projeto cria o documento de abertura do projeto. Esse documento é um marco fundamental de qualquer projeto pois é ele que "anuncia ao mundo" que um novo projeto se está a iniciar e avalia os principais aspetos do projeto proposto.
 

Para saber mais sobre o conteúdo e como se cria um documento de abertura do projeto (Project Charter) leia os seguintes artigos:

 

Como Fazer o Project Charter (Documento de Inicio do Projeto)
PMBOK v5: 4.1 Criar Documento de Inicio do Projeto (Project Charter)

 
A fase seguinte do processo tradicional de gestão de projetos é a fase de planeamento. Consuante o tipo de projeto e a metodologia de gestão de projetos adoptada essa fase de planeamento poderá ser mais ou menos exaustiva, preceder a fase de execução do projeto ou acompanhar todo o processo de execução do projeto. Fazer preceder a execução do projeto de uma fase intensiva e aprofundada de planeamento ou estruturar o ciclo de vida do projeto em ciclos sucessivos de planeamento e execução, são opções que caracterizam os dois principais paradigmas da gestão de projetos (gestão tradicional e estruturada versus gestão ágil e adaptativa).

O principal objetivo, do planeamento do projeto, é dotar, a equipa de projeto e o seu gestor, do máximo de conhecimento possível sobre o que tem de ser feito (as funcionalidades do produto ou serviço que o projeto se propõe criar) e sobre como é que deverá ser feito (as atividades que terão de ser executadas, o seu calendário e encadeamento, os recursos, os riscos, os custos, etc.).

Um plano bem feito deve conter um conjunto de metas intermédias (milestones) que permitam ir validando periodicamente o grau de eficiência e de eficácia da sua execução.

 

O nosso blog tem um conjunto muito alargado de artigos centrados nas diversas vertentes do planeamento do projeto. Escolhemos 3 para que possa ficar a saber um pouco mais sobre a fase de planeamento do projeto tanto na sua vertente mais estruturada como na sua forma mais ágil e adaptativa.


O que é Planeamento Por Ondas Sucessivas (Rolling Wave Planning)
Criar o Plano de Gestão de Projeto: PMBOK vs AGILE 


A partir de uma certa altura do processo de planeamento, o conhecimento que a equipa e o seu gestor tem sobre o projeto, permite-lhes dar inicio à sua execução. Esta é terceira fase do processo de gestão de projetos e decorre em paralelo com as atividades de controlo que são necessárias para aferir se o plano está a ser executado como o previsto ou se são necessárias alterações que permitam fazer face a acontecimentos inesperados ou que possibilitem a melhoria do plano com base na incorporação de conhecimento que foi entretanto adquirido.

A fase de execução é sempre acompanhada de um conjunto de atividades de controlo, as quais por vezes são entendidas como a quarta fase do processo de gestão de projetos. O controlo deve ser eficiente, no sentido em que deve ocupar o mínimo de recursos possível e medir a evolução de um conjunto limitado de características que sejam relevantes para avaliar: 1) Se as características do produto ou serviço que está a ser construido obedecem às especificações que para elas foram definidas; 2) Se as atividades que estão a ser realizadas decorrem conforme o planeado.

Os processos de controlo têm como objetivo principal a deteção e correção de anomalias e a informação atualizada a todos os interessados no projeto sobre o estado da respetiva execução.


Para saber mais sobre a execução e o controlo do projeto, bem como sobre os respetivos processos de comunicação com a comunidade de interessados leia os seguintes artigos:

 

Processos de Execução no PMBOK
Processos de Controlo no PMBOK
Como Fazer o Plano de Comunicação do Projeto


Nem todos os processos são bem sucedidos, e muitos projetos acabam sem que se consiga atingir os objetivos que tinham sido definidos no seu documento inicial (Project Charter). Contudo, para os projetos bem sucedidos, uma vez que todas as atividades do projeto, e que todas as metas intermédias (milesones) forem concluídas, o projeto entra na sua ultima fase, o encerramento. 

Durante o fecho validam-se, organizam-se e arrumam-se todos os documentos do projeto (garantindo que essa informação fica disponível para consulta futura), garante-se que todos os processos com fornecedores terceiros estão adequadamente resolvidos, e se encontram formalmente fechados (isto é, o trabalho que eles fizeram para o nosso projeto foi formalmente aceite e está integralmente pago) e que as lições aprendidas ao longo de todo o projeto foram adequadamente documentadas e se encontram disponíveis para poderem ser usadas em projetos futuros.


O fecho do projeto é uma fase fundamental, não tanto para o sucesso do projeto, mas sobretudo para o sucesso da sua pós-implementação, isto é, da utilização do produto ou serviço que o projeto criou.


Para saber mais sobre a fase de fecho do projeto leia os seguintes artigos:

 
Processos de Fecho no PMBOK
PMBOK: 4.6 - Encerrar o Projeto ou Fase

   

Por hoje é tudo.

Bons Projetos

Grp2ALL
Project management is a big growth industry. The Project Management Institute (PMI) estimates that between 2010 and 2020, there will be 6.2 million project management jobs in the United States alone. Project managers are tasked with keeping projects on the right track. They ensure that projects finish on time and within budget, while also meeting the needs of the customer. Project managers do the scheduling, tracking and managing of the resources that go into a project. - See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources. - See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources. - See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources. - See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources.
Project management is a big growth industry. The Project Management Institute (PMI) estimates that between 2010 and 2020, there will be 6.2 million project management jobs in the United States alone. Project managers are tasked with keeping projects on the right track. They ensure that projects finish on time and within budget, while also meeting the needs of the customer. Project managers do the scheduling, tracking and managing of the resources that go into a project.
Project management begins with the project initiation stage, where the manager develops a project charter to announce a new project and evaluate key aspects of the proposed project. The project scope must be defined, as well as risk management. The kick-off report comes next, which defines objectives, scope, requirements, timeline, meeting schedules and budget for the project.
The next stage of project management is project control. A project plan will help manage and control project execution, including resource hours and requirements. Regular status updates should be reported by the project team and managers, who should also be developing a project test plan. Testing is a critical part of the project management process, and the test plan should include key deliverables and milestones, time line, budget, and checklists for testing requirements.
Once all project tasks and milestones have been completed, the project is in the closure stage. A project closing report will be needed to summarize the process, methodology, findings, budget constraints, and what was learned during the project's process. With this report, the organization can use what was learned during this project by applying its lessons to the next project.
Project management methodologies
There are a number of methodologies that can be used for project management. Here is a list of some of the most popular project management methodologies:
Traditional project management – A step-by-step approach, traditional project management assesses the project through its five stages: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and completion. Each stage is done in chronological order, with a stage beginning only after the preceding stage has been completed. For linear work that is not anticipating significant change, such as construction projects, the traditional project management model is ideal.
Critical Path Method (CPM) – The CPM assigns each task a time duration, and then considers the necessary resources to carry out the project task within that time. This method is based on ensuring the best possible time-efficiency. For example, if one task is late by one day, the project end date extends by one day.
Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) – CCPM focuses on the resources at hand rather than the time needed. The critical chain is the sequence of tasks that team members are assigned. When limited resources are involved, CCPM distributes the work in a collaborative way for the team.
Event Chain Methodology (ECM) – ECM is ideal for projects with tasks that initiate chains of events. When each task is completed, a new event (and new task) is created. These events are not always anticipated, so they must be managed carefully to reach the end of the project. This methodology is designed for projects that aren't linear and cannot use the traditional project management methodology.
Agile – This approach completes the project in small sections called iterations. The project team reviews and critiques each iteration, and decides the next step in the project. Generally, each project iteration is given a two-week duration. With the agile project management methodology, project teams can respond to issues as they arise throughout the project's course. The teams can make necessary changes to a project at the right time to save resources. This process is ideal for organizations that can make decisions quickly without the need to take decisions to a committee or a board.
Scrum – Scrum is a type of agile project management where multiple small teams work in an interdependent manner. The project manager is known as the scrum master, and each team meets daily to collaborate while focusing on common interests. With scrum, iterations are completed in brief, high-intensity, and frequent work sessions by each team.
Project management tools
There are a number of tools available to help project managers through the project management process. Most are software-based, and the most common ones are AtTask, Clarizen,and Earliz. Basic project management software apps include task, team, and goal management features. Other common features include time tracking and invoicing. Examples of this include Lighthouse, CreativePro Office (which is free), Basecamp, and No Kahuna, among many others.
Wiki-based project management tools can be used instead of basic project management apps, or in addition to one. Wiki-based tools offer timelines, ticket tracking, and road mapping in a wiki interface. Examples include Trac and PBwiki. Wiki-based tools offer similar benefits to collaboration and conferencing tools, which allow you to organize projects and share files with your team. Collaboration tools enable discussions, assignments, desktop sharing, and teleconferencing capabilities.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
PMI is a project manager membership association that advocates the recognition of the role of the project manager in governments, organizations, academia and industries. The institute spans 185 countries and includes more than 650,000 members. PMI offers certifications for project managers of six varying levels. This certification helps educate users, while allowing employers to know which project managers are up to the task. According to PMI, those with certification will earn approximately 16 percent more than those without it.
- See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources.
Project management is a big growth industry. The Project Management Institute (PMI) estimates that between 2010 and 2020, there will be 6.2 million project management jobs in the United States alone. Project managers are tasked with keeping projects on the right track. They ensure that projects finish on time and within budget, while also meeting the needs of the customer. Project managers do the scheduling, tracking and managing of the resources that go into a project.
Project management begins with the project initiation stage, where the manager develops a project charter to announce a new project and evaluate key aspects of the proposed project. The project scope must be defined, as well as risk management. The kick-off report comes next, which defines objectives, scope, requirements, timeline, meeting schedules and budget for the project.
The next stage of project management is project control. A project plan will help manage and control project execution, including resource hours and requirements. Regular status updates should be reported by the project team and managers, who should also be developing a project test plan. Testing is a critical part of the project management process, and the test plan should include key deliverables and milestones, time line, budget, and checklists for testing requirements.
Once all project tasks and milestones have been completed, the project is in the closure stage. A project closing report will be needed to summarize the process, methodology, findings, budget constraints, and what was learned during the project's process. With this report, the organization can use what was learned during this project by applying its lessons to the next project.
Project management methodologies
There are a number of methodologies that can be used for project management. Here is a list of some of the most popular project management methodologies:
Traditional project management – A step-by-step approach, traditional project management assesses the project through its five stages: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and completion. Each stage is done in chronological order, with a stage beginning only after the preceding stage has been completed. For linear work that is not anticipating significant change, such as construction projects, the traditional project management model is ideal.
Critical Path Method (CPM) – The CPM assigns each task a time duration, and then considers the necessary resources to carry out the project task within that time. This method is based on ensuring the best possible time-efficiency. For example, if one task is late by one day, the project end date extends by one day.
Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) – CCPM focuses on the resources at hand rather than the time needed. The critical chain is the sequence of tasks that team members are assigned. When limited resources are involved, CCPM distributes the work in a collaborative way for the team.
Event Chain Methodology (ECM) – ECM is ideal for projects with tasks that initiate chains of events. When each task is completed, a new event (and new task) is created. These events are not always anticipated, so they must be managed carefully to reach the end of the project. This methodology is designed for projects that aren't linear and cannot use the traditional project management methodology.
Agile – This approach completes the project in small sections called iterations. The project team reviews and critiques each iteration, and decides the next step in the project. Generally, each project iteration is given a two-week duration. With the agile project management methodology, project teams can respond to issues as they arise throughout the project's course. The teams can make necessary changes to a project at the right time to save resources. This process is ideal for organizations that can make decisions quickly without the need to take decisions to a committee or a board.
Scrum – Scrum is a type of agile project management where multiple small teams work in an interdependent manner. The project manager is known as the scrum master, and each team meets daily to collaborate while focusing on common interests. With scrum, iterations are completed in brief, high-intensity, and frequent work sessions by each team.
Project management tools
There are a number of tools available to help project managers through the project management process. Most are software-based, and the most common ones are AtTask, Clarizen,and Earliz. Basic project management software apps include task, team, and goal management features. Other common features include time tracking and invoicing. Examples of this include Lighthouse, CreativePro Office (which is free), Basecamp, and No Kahuna, among many others.
Wiki-based project management tools can be used instead of basic project management apps, or in addition to one. Wiki-based tools offer timelines, ticket tracking, and road mapping in a wiki interface. Examples include Trac and PBwiki. Wiki-based tools offer similar benefits to collaboration and conferencing tools, which allow you to organize projects and share files with your team. Collaboration tools enable discussions, assignments, desktop sharing, and teleconferencing capabilities.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
PMI is a project manager membership association that advocates the recognition of the role of the project manager in governments, organizations, academia and industries. The institute spans 185 countries and includes more than 650,000 members. PMI offers certifications for project managers of six varying levels. This certification helps educate users, while allowing employers to know which project managers are up to the task. According to PMI, those with certification will earn approximately 16 percent more than those without it.
- See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources.
Project management is a big growth industry. The Project Management Institute (PMI) estimates that between 2010 and 2020, there will be 6.2 million project management jobs in the United States alone. Project managers are tasked with keeping projects on the right track. They ensure that projects finish on time and within budget, while also meeting the needs of the customer. Project managers do the scheduling, tracking and managing of the resources that go into a project.
Project management begins with the project initiation stage, where the manager develops a project charter to announce a new project and evaluate key aspects of the proposed project. The project scope must be defined, as well as risk management. The kick-off report comes next, which defines objectives, scope, requirements, timeline, meeting schedules and budget for the project.
The next stage of project management is project control. A project plan will help manage and control project execution, including resource hours and requirements. Regular status updates should be reported by the project team and managers, who should also be developing a project test plan. Testing is a critical part of the project management process, and the test plan should include key deliverables and milestones, time line, budget, and checklists for testing requirements.
Once all project tasks and milestones have been completed, the project is in the closure stage. A project closing report will be needed to summarize the process, methodology, findings, budget constraints, and what was learned during the project's process. With this report, the organization can use what was learned during this project by applying its lessons to the next project.
Project management methodologies
There are a number of methodologies that can be used for project management. Here is a list of some of the most popular project management methodologies:
Traditional project management – A step-by-step approach, traditional project management assesses the project through its five stages: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and completion. Each stage is done in chronological order, with a stage beginning only after the preceding stage has been completed. For linear work that is not anticipating significant change, such as construction projects, the traditional project management model is ideal.
Critical Path Method (CPM) – The CPM assigns each task a time duration, and then considers the necessary resources to carry out the project task within that time. This method is based on ensuring the best possible time-efficiency. For example, if one task is late by one day, the project end date extends by one day.
Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) – CCPM focuses on the resources at hand rather than the time needed. The critical chain is the sequence of tasks that team members are assigned. When limited resources are involved, CCPM distributes the work in a collaborative way for the team.
Event Chain Methodology (ECM) – ECM is ideal for projects with tasks that initiate chains of events. When each task is completed, a new event (and new task) is created. These events are not always anticipated, so they must be managed carefully to reach the end of the project. This methodology is designed for projects that aren't linear and cannot use the traditional project management methodology.
Agile – This approach completes the project in small sections called iterations. The project team reviews and critiques each iteration, and decides the next step in the project. Generally, each project iteration is given a two-week duration. With the agile project management methodology, project teams can respond to issues as they arise throughout the project's course. The teams can make necessary changes to a project at the right time to save resources. This process is ideal for organizations that can make decisions quickly without the need to take decisions to a committee or a board.
Scrum – Scrum is a type of agile project management where multiple small teams work in an interdependent manner. The project manager is known as the scrum master, and each team meets daily to collaborate while focusing on common interests. With scrum, iterations are completed in brief, high-intensity, and frequent work sessions by each team.
Project management tools
There are a number of tools available to help project managers through the project management process. Most are software-based, and the most common ones are AtTask, Clarizen,and Earliz. Basic project management software apps include task, team, and goal management features. Other common features include time tracking and invoicing. Examples of this include Lighthouse, CreativePro Office (which is free), Basecamp, and No Kahuna, among many others.
Wiki-based project management tools can be used instead of basic project management apps, or in addition to one. Wiki-based tools offer timelines, ticket tracking, and road mapping in a wiki interface. Examples include Trac and PBwiki. Wiki-based tools offer similar benefits to collaboration and conferencing tools, which allow you to organize projects and share files with your team. Collaboration tools enable discussions, assignments, desktop sharing, and teleconferencing capabilities.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
PMI is a project manager membership association that advocates the recognition of the role of the project manager in governments, organizations, academia and industries. The institute spans 185 countries and includes more than 650,000 members. PMI offers certifications for project managers of six varying levels. This certification helps educate users, while allowing employers to know which project managers are up to the task. According to PMI, those with certification will earn approximately 16 percent more than those without it.
- See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources.
Project management is a big growth industry. The Project Management Institute (PMI) estimates that between 2010 and 2020, there will be 6.2 million project management jobs in the United States alone. Project managers are tasked with keeping projects on the right track. They ensure that projects finish on time and within budget, while also meeting the needs of the customer. Project managers do the scheduling, tracking and managing of the resources that go into a project.
Project management begins with the project initiation stage, where the manager develops a project charter to announce a new project and evaluate key aspects of the proposed project. The project scope must be defined, as well as risk management. The kick-off report comes next, which defines objectives, scope, requirements, timeline, meeting schedules and budget for the project.
The next stage of project management is project control. A project plan will help manage and control project execution, including resource hours and requirements. Regular status updates should be reported by the project team and managers, who should also be developing a project test plan. Testing is a critical part of the project management process, and the test plan should include key deliverables and milestones, time line, budget, and checklists for testing requirements.
Once all project tasks and milestones have been completed, the project is in the closure stage. A project closing report will be needed to summarize the process, methodology, findings, budget constraints, and what was learned during the project's process. With this report, the organization can use what was learned during this project by applying its lessons to the next project.
Project management methodologies
There are a number of methodologies that can be used for project management. Here is a list of some of the most popular project management methodologies:
Traditional project management – A step-by-step approach, traditional project management assesses the project through its five stages: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and completion. Each stage is done in chronological order, with a stage beginning only after the preceding stage has been completed. For linear work that is not anticipating significant change, such as construction projects, the traditional project management model is ideal.
Critical Path Method (CPM) – The CPM assigns each task a time duration, and then considers the necessary resources to carry out the project task within that time. This method is based on ensuring the best possible time-efficiency. For example, if one task is late by one day, the project end date extends by one day.
Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) – CCPM focuses on the resources at hand rather than the time needed. The critical chain is the sequence of tasks that team members are assigned. When limited resources are involved, CCPM distributes the work in a collaborative way for the team.
Event Chain Methodology (ECM) – ECM is ideal for projects with tasks that initiate chains of events. When each task is completed, a new event (and new task) is created. These events are not always anticipated, so they must be managed carefully to reach the end of the project. This methodology is designed for projects that aren't linear and cannot use the traditional project management methodology.
Agile – This approach completes the project in small sections called iterations. The project team reviews and critiques each iteration, and decides the next step in the project. Generally, each project iteration is given a two-week duration. With the agile project management methodology, project teams can respond to issues as they arise throughout the project's course. The teams can make necessary changes to a project at the right time to save resources. This process is ideal for organizations that can make decisions quickly without the need to take decisions to a committee or a board.
Scrum – Scrum is a type of agile project management where multiple small teams work in an interdependent manner. The project manager is known as the scrum master, and each team meets daily to collaborate while focusing on common interests. With scrum, iterations are completed in brief, high-intensity, and frequent work sessions by each team.
Project management tools
There are a number of tools available to help project managers through the project management process. Most are software-based, and the most common ones are AtTask, Clarizen,and Earliz. Basic project management software apps include task, team, and goal management features. Other common features include time tracking and invoicing. Examples of this include Lighthouse, CreativePro Office (which is free), Basecamp, and No Kahuna, among many others.
Wiki-based project management tools can be used instead of basic project management apps, or in addition to one. Wiki-based tools offer timelines, ticket tracking, and road mapping in a wiki interface. Examples include Trac and PBwiki. Wiki-based tools offer similar benefits to collaboration and conferencing tools, which allow you to organize projects and share files with your team. Collaboration tools enable discussions, assignments, desktop sharing, and teleconferencing capabilities.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
PMI is a project manager membership association that advocates the recognition of the role of the project manager in governments, organizations, academia and industries. The institute spans 185 countries and includes more than 650,000 members. PMI offers certifications for project managers of six varying levels. This certification helps educate users, while allowing employers to know which project managers are up to the task. According to PMI, those with certification will earn approximately 16 percent more than those without it.
- See more at: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4014-project-management.html#sthash.IvPBeTAg.dpuf
Project management is the process of planning and organizing tasks to accomplish a successful project. Projects are one-time temporary efforts designed to produce a specific result, such as installing a new computer system or planning an event. They can last for a week or years, but a project has an end date. This is different from ongoing operations, which don't have end dates. Examples of these include payroll and human resources.
Project management is a big growth industry. The Project Management Institute (PMI) estimates that between 2010 and 2020, there will be 6.2 million project management jobs in the United States alone. Project managers are tasked with keeping projects on the right track. They ensure that projects finish on time and within budget, while also meeting the needs of the customer. Project managers do the scheduling, tracking and managing of the resources that go into a project.
Project management begins with the project initiation stage, where the manager develops a project charter to announce a new project and evaluate key aspects of the proposed project. The project scope must be defined, as well as risk management. The kick-off report comes next, which defines objectives, scope, requirements, timeline, meeting schedules and budget for the project.
The next stage of project management is project control. A project plan will help manage and control project execution, including resource hours and requirements. Regular status updates should be reported by the project team and managers, who should also be developing a project test plan. Testing is a critical part of the project management process, and the test plan should include key deliverables and milestones, time line, budget, and checklists for testing requirements.
Once all project tasks and milestones have been completed, the project is in the closure stage. A project closing report will be needed to summarize the process, methodology, findings, budget constraints, and what was learned during the project's process. With this report, the organization can use what was learned during this project by applying its lessons to the next project.
Project management methodologies
There are a number of methodologies that can be used for project management. Here is a list of some of the most popular project management methodologies:
Traditional project management – A step-by-step approach, traditional project management assesses the project through its five stages: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and completion. Each stage is done in chronological order, with a stage beginning only after the preceding stage has been completed. For linear work that is not anticipating significant change, such as construction projects, the traditional project management model is ideal.
Critical Path Method (CPM) – The CPM assigns each task a time duration, and then considers the necessary resources to carry out the project task within that time. This method is based on ensuring the best possible time-efficiency. For example, if one task is late by one day, the project end date extends by one day.
Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) – CCPM focuses on the resources at hand rather than the time needed. The critical chain is the sequence of tasks that team members are assigned. When limited resources are involved, CCPM distributes the work in a collaborative way for the team.
Event Chain Methodology (ECM) – ECM is ideal for projects with tasks that initiate chains of events. When each task is completed, a new event (and new task) is created. These events are not always anticipated, so they must be managed carefully to reach the end of the project. This methodology is designed for projects that aren't linear and cannot use the traditional project management methodology.
Agile – This approach completes the project in small sections called iterations. The project team reviews and critiques each iteration, and decides the next step in the project. Generally, each project iteration is given a two-week duration. With the agile project management methodology, project teams can respond to issues as they arise throughout the project's course. The teams can make necessary changes to a project at the right time to save resources. This process is ideal for organizations that can make decisions quickly without the need to take decisions to a committee or a board.
Scrum – Scrum is a type of agile project management where multiple small teams work in an interdependent manner. The project manager is known as the scrum master, and each team meets daily to collaborate while focusing on common interests. With scrum, iterations are completed in brief, high-intensity, and frequent work sessions by each team.
Project management tools
There are a number of tools available to help project managers through the project management process. Most are software-based, and the most common ones are AtTask, Clarizen,and Earliz. Basic project management software apps include task, team, and goal management features. Other common features include time tracking and invoicing. Examples of this include Lighthouse, CreativePro Office (which is free), Basecamp, and No Kahuna, among many others.
Wiki-based project management tools can be used instead of basic project management apps, or in addition to one. Wiki-based tools offer timelines, ticket tracking, and road mapping in a wiki interface. Examples include Trac and PBwiki. Wiki-based tools offer similar benefits to collaboration and conferencing tools, which allow you to organize projects and share files with your team. Collaboration tools enable discussions, assignments, desktop sharing, and teleconferencing capabilities.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
PMI is a project manager membership association that advocates the recognition of the role of the project manager in governments, organizations, academia and industries. The institute spans 185 countries and includes more than 650,000 members. PMI offers certifications for project managers of six varying levels. This certification helps educate users, while allowing employers to know which project managers are up to the task. According to PMI, those with certification will earn approximately 16 percent more than those without it.
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